Eurovision Song Contest 1989

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Eurovision Song Contest 1989
Dates
Final6 May 1989
Host
VenuePalais de Beaulieu
Lausanne, Switzerland
Presenter(s)
Musical directorBenoît Kaufman
Directed byAlain Bloch
Charles-André Grivet
Executive supervisorFrank Naef
Executive producerRaymond Zumsteg
Host broadcasterSwiss Broadcasting Corporation (SRG SSR)
Télévision suisse romande (TSR)
Websiteeurovision.tv/event/lausanne-1989 Edit this at Wikidata
Participants
Number of entries22
Debuting countriesNone
Returning countries Cyprus
Non-returning countriesNone
  • A coloured map of the countries of EuropeBelgium in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Italy in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Netherlands in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Switzerland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Germany in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989United Kingdom in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Monaco in the Eurovision Song ContestLuxembourg in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Ireland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Denmark in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Finland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Norway in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Portugal in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Sweden in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Greece in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Malta in the Eurovision Song ContestAustria in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989France in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Turkey in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Yugoslavia in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Morocco in the Eurovision Song ContestCyprus in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989Iceland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1989
         Competing countries     Countries that participated in the past but not in 1989
Vote
Voting systemEach country awarded 12, 10, 8–1 point(s) to their 10 favourite songs
Winning song Yugoslavia
"Rock Me"
1988 ← Eurovision Song Contest → 1990

The Eurovision Song Contest 1989 was the 34th edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, held on 6 May 1989 in the Palais de Beaulieu in Lausanne, Switzerland. Organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and host broadcaster Télévision suisse romande (TSR) on behalf of the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (SRG SSR), and presented by Jacques Deschenaux and Lolita Morena, the contest was held in Switzerland following the country's victory at the 1988 contest with the song "Ne partez pas sans moi" by Céline Dion.

Twenty-two countries participated in the contest, with Cyprus returning after a one-year absence. Among the participating artists were the two youngest artists to have ever participated in the contest, 12-year-old Gili Netanel and 11-year-old Nathalie Pâque representing Israel and France respectively; the inclusion of the young performers led to some controversy in the run-up to the event.

The winner was Yugoslavia with the song "Rock Me", composed by Rajko Dujmić, written by Stevo Cvikić and performed by the group Riva. This was Yugoslavia's first contest victory in twenty-four attempts. The United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden and Austria rounded out the top five positions; the UK and Denmark placed second and third for a second consecutive year, and Austria finished in the top five for the first time since 1976. Finland gained their best result since 1975, while Ireland and Iceland achieved their worst ever placings to date, placing eighteenth and twenty-second respectively, with Iceland ultimately earning nul points and coming last for the first time.

Location[edit]

Palais de Beaulieu, Lausanne – host venue of the 1989 contest

The 1989 contest took place in Lausanne, Switzerland, following the country's victory at the 1988 contest with the song "Ne partez pas sans moi" performed by Céline Dion. It was the second time that Switzerland had hosted the event, following the inaugural edition of the contest held in 1956 in Lugano.[1]

The chosen venue was the Palais de Beaulieu, a convention and exhibition centre. The contest took place in the Hall 7 of the Palais, also known as the Halle des Fêtes, which was temporarily renamed Salle Lys Assia in honour of Switzerland's first Eurovision winning artist.[2][3] An audience of around 1,600 people could occupy the Salle Lys Assia during the contest.[4] Over a dozen cities were reported to have applied to host the contest, with Lausanne winning out due to its combination of a suitable production venue, logistical infrastructure availability, and proximity to an international airport.[5][6]

Participating countries[edit]

Justine Pelmelay (pictured in 2011) represented the Netherlands, after supporting the Dutch entry in the previous year's event as backing vocalist.

Twenty-two countries participated in the 1989 contest, with the twenty-one countries from the previous year's event being joined by Cyprus, returning after a one-year absence.[2][7]

For the first time Switzerland sent an entry in Romansh, the smallest of Switzerland's four national languages.[2][7]

No artists competing in the 1989 contest had previously taken part as lead artists in previous events, however two of the artists had previously performed in the contest in past editions. The Netherlands's Justine Pelmelay had been one of the backing vocalists supporting the Dutch entrant Gerard Joling in the 1988 event, and Greece's Marianna had also performed as a backing vocalist in 1987 for Bang.[8][9] Additionally, Søren Bundgaard who had represented Denmark in three previous editions of the contest as a member of the duo Hot Eyes, was one of Birthe Kjær's backing performers in this year's event.[10][11]

For the first time since 1980, the event featured two participating songs written by the same songwriters: both the German and Austrian were written by Dieter Bohlen and Joachim Horn-Bernges.[12]

The 1989 contest featured the youngest ever lead performers, in the form of 12-year-old Gili Netanel [he] and 11-year-old Nathalie Pâque representing Israel and France respectively. Their inclusion in the contest led to controversy and protest from some of the other competitors, who felt their young age should preclude them from the contest. As there were no existing rules regarding the age of performers the two artists were allowed to compete, however the controversy led to the introduction of an age restriction on performing artists for the 1990 contest.[2][7][12]

Participants of the Eurovision Song Contest 1989[13][14][15]
Country Broadcaster Artist Song Language Songwriter(s) Conductor
 Austria ORF Thomas Forstner "Nur ein Lied" German No conductor
 Belgium BRT Ingeborg "Door de wind" Dutch Stef Bos Freddy Sunder
 Cyprus CyBC Fanny Polymeri and Yiannis Savvidakis "Apopse as vrethoume" (Απόψε ας βρεθούμε) Greek
  • Efi Meletiou
  • Marios Meletiou
Haris Andreadis
 Denmark DR Birthe Kjær "Vi maler byen rød" Danish Henrik Krogsgaard[a]
 Finland YLE Anneli Saaristo "La dolce vita" Finnish
  • Turkka Mali
  • Matti Puurtinen
Ossi Runne
 France Antenne 2 Nathalie Pâque "J'ai volé la vie" French
  • G.G. Candy
  • Sylvain Lebel
  • Guy Mattéoni
Guy Mattéoni
 Germany BR[b] Nino de Angelo "Flieger" German
  • Dieter Bohlen
  • Joachim Horn-Bernges
No conductor
 Greece ERT Marianna "To diko sou asteri" (Το δικό σου αστέρι) Greek
Giorgos Niarchos
 Iceland RÚV Daníel "Það sem enginn sér" Icelandic Valgeir Guðjónsson No conductor
 Ireland RTÉ Kiev Connolly and the Missing Passengers "The Real Me" English Kiev Connolly Noel Kelehan
 Israel IBA Gili and Galit "Derekh Hamelekh" (דרך המלך) Hebrew Shaike Paikov Shaike Paikov
 Italy RAI Anna Oxa and Fausto Leali "Avrei voluto" Italian
Mario Natale
 Luxembourg CLT Park Café "Monsieur" French
Benoît Kaufman
 Netherlands NOS Justine Pelmelay "Blijf zoals je bent" Dutch Harry van Hoof
 Norway NRK Britt Synnøve Johansen "Venners nærhet" Norwegian
  • Inge Enoksen
  • Leiv N. Grøtte
Pete Knutsen
 Portugal RTP Da Vinci "Conquistador" Portuguese Luís Duarte
 Spain TVE Nina "Nacida para amar" Spanish Juan Carlos Calderón Juan Carlos Calderón
 Sweden SVT Tommy Nilsson "En dag" Swedish Anders Berglund
  Switzerland SRG SSR Furbaz "Viver senza tei" Romansh Marie Louise Werth Benoît Kaufman
 Turkey TRT Pan "Bana Bana" Turkish Timur Selçuk Timur Selçuk
 United Kingdom BBC Live Report "Why Do I Always Get It Wrong" English
  • John Beeby
  • Brian Hodgson
Ronnie Hazlehurst
 Yugoslavia JRT Riva "Rock Me" Serbo-Croatian
Nikica Kalogjera

Production[edit]

Lolita Morena, one of the two presenters of the 1989 contest

The Eurovision Song Contest 1989 was produced by the Swiss public broadcaster Télévision suisse romande (TSR) on behalf of the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (German: Schweizerische Radio- und Fernsehgesellschaft; French: Société suisse de radiodiffusion et télévision; SRG SSR).[17][18] Raymond Zumsteg served as executive producer, Alain Bloch served as producer and director, Charles-André Grivet served as director, Paul Waelti served as designer, and Benoît Kaufman served as musical director leading an assembled orchestra of 55 musicians.[7][19][20][21] A separate musical director could be nominated by each country to lead the orchestra during their performance, with the host musical director also available to conduct for those countries which did not nominate their own conductor.[13]

Following the confirmation of the twenty-two competing countries, the draw to determine the running order of the contest was held on 23 November 1988.[2] Production details related to the contest were also shared on this date, including the contest's mascot and logo. The mascot, Cindy Aeschbach, an 11-year old girl from Morges, was chosen from among two hundred girls from schools in the Swiss region of La Côte to embody the character of Heidi in the contest's opening sequence.[21][22][23] The logo, designed by Fritz Aeschbach, is a representation of the Matterhorn created with computer graphics, constructed using contour lines to represent the strings of a guitar, and featuring a silhouette outline of Lausanne Cathedral at the base.[23] The presenters of the contest were publicly revealed on 17 January 1989: the sports journalist and television presenter Jacques Deschenaux and the television presenter and former winner of the Miss Switzerland beauty pageant Lolita Morena were chosen from among several candidates considered by TSR.[4][13][24]

Rehearsals for the participating artists began on 1 May 1989. Two technical rehearsals were conducted for each participating delegation in the week approaching the contest, with countries rehearsing in the order in which they would perform. The first rehearsals of 50 minutes were held on 1 and 2 May, followed by a press conference for each delegation and the accredited press. Each country's second rehearsals were held on 3 and 4 May and lasted 35 minutes total. Three dress rehearsals were held with all artists, two held in the afternoon and evening of 5 May and one final rehearsal in the afternoon of 6 May; all dress rehearsals were held in front of an audience, although for the afternoon rehearsal on 5 May the acts were not required to be in their performance costumes.[2]

During the week of the contest each delegation also took part in recording sessions for the postcards, short films which served as an introduction to each country's entry, as well as providing an opportunity for transition between entries and allow stage crew to make changes on stage.[25][26] Footage for the postcards were filmed between 1 and 4 May for all delegates, with the exception of the Swiss delegation which filmed for their postcard in the weeks leading up to the contest; delegations recorded for their postcards on one of the days in which they were not required to be present at the contest venue.[2] Delegations were also invited to a number of receptions during the contest week, with a welcome reception hosted by Council of States of the canton of Vaud and the municipality of Lausanne in the ballroom of the Palais de Beaulieu on 1 May, a performance by Céline Dion in the Théâtre de Beaulieu on 2 May, a dinner cruise on Lake Geneva on 3 May, and a reception on 5 May hosted by the tourist office of the canton of Grisons.[2][27]

Format[edit]

Each participating broadcaster submitted one song, which was required to be no longer than three minutes in duration and performed in the language, or one of the languages, of the country which it represented.[28][29] A maximum of six performers were allowed on stage during each country's performance.[28][30] Each entry could utilise all or part of the live orchestra and could use instrumental-only backing tracks, however any backing tracks used could only include the sound of instruments featured on stage being mimed by the performers.[30][31]

The results of the 1989 contest were determined through the same scoring system as had first been introduced in 1975: each country awarded twelve points to its favourite entry, followed by ten points to its second favourite, and then awarded points in decreasing value from eight to one for the remaining songs which featured in the country's top ten, with countries unable to vote for their own entry.[32] The points awarded by each country were determined by an assembled jury of sixteen individuals, who were all required to be members of the public with no connection to the music industry, split evenly between men and women and by age. Each jury member voted in secret and awarded between one and ten votes to each participating song, excluding that from their own country and with no abstentions permitted. The votes of each member were collected following the country's performance and then tallied by the non-voting jury chairperson to determine the points to be awarded. In any cases where two or more songs in the top ten received the same number of votes, a show of hands by all jury members was used to determine the final placing.[33][34]

Partly due to the close result at the previous year's event, the tie-break procedure, to determine a single winner should two or more countries finish in first place with the same number of points, was modified. For the 1989 event and for future contents an analysis of the tied countries' top marks would be conducted, with the country that received the most 12 point scores being declared the winner. If a tie for first place remained then the country with the most 10 points would be crowned the winner. Should two or more countries still remain tied for first place after analysing both 12 and 10 point scores then the tying countries would be declared joint winners.[2][7]

Contest overview[edit]

Emilija Kokić (pictured in 2008), lead vocalist of the winning group Riva,[12] Yugoslavia's first and only Eurovision winning act.

The contest took place on 6 May 1989 at 21:00 (CEST) with a duration of 3 hours and 10 minutes and presented by Jacques Deschenaux and Lolita Morena.[7][13]

The contest opened with a seven minute film, directed by Jean-Marc Panchaud, highlighting modern Swiss landscapes and themes in juxtaposition with paintings by celebrated Swiss artists and starring Sylvie Aeschbach as Heidi.[3][21][23] This was followed by performances in the contest venue by the reigning Eurovision winner Célion Dion, who performed both her winning song from the 1988 contest "Ne partez pas sans moi" and the premiere of her first English language single "Where Does My Heart Beat Now".[35][36] The interval act was the stunt artist Guy Tell; modelling himself after the Swiss folk hero William Tell, Guy Tell used high-powered crossbows to pierce various targets with precision at distance. The climax of the performance featured sixteen crossbows being positioned to set off a chain reaction in sequence, with the arrow from the first crossbow hitting a target which set off the next crossbow, culminating in an arrow piercing an apple set above the head of the performer. Ultimately however, on the night of the contest itself, the final arrow missed the apple slightly by a few centimetres.[12][37][38] The trophy awarded to the winners was presented at the end of the broadcast by Céline Dion and Sylvie Aeschbach.[39]

The winner was Yugoslavia represented by the song "Rock Me", composed by Rajko Dujmić, written by Stevo Cvikić and performed by the band Riva.[40] It was Yugoslavia's first Eurovision win on their twenty-fourth contest appearance, becoming the seventeenth nation to win the contest.[12][41] It would also prove to be the country's only win, as the nation would begin to break into separate states two years later and would eventually participate for the last time in 1992.[42] It was the sixth time that the song which was performed last ended up winning the contest.[33] The United Kingdom and Denmark placed second and third respectively for the second consecutive year, with the UK finishing in second place for the twelfth time in total.[12][33] Austria finished in the top five for the first time since 1976, while Finland achieved its best result since 1975.[43][44] Ireland achieved their worst result to date, and for the third consecutive year one of the participating countries failed to receive any points, on this occasion Iceland became the newest country to receive nul points, their worst result in four years of participation.[12][45][46] During the traditional winner's reprise performance Riva sung the winning song entirely in English.[33]

Results of the Eurovision Song Contest 1989[33][47]
R/O Country Artist Song Points Place
1  Italy Anna Oxa and Fausto Leali "Avrei voluto" 56 9
2  Israel Gili and Galit "Derekh Hamelekh" 50 12
3  Ireland Kiev Connolly and the Missing Passengers "The Real Me" 21 18
4  Netherlands Justine Pelmelay "Blijf zoals je bent" 45 15
5  Turkey Pan "Bana Bana" 5 21
6  Belgium Ingeborg "Door de wind" 13 19
7  United Kingdom Live Report "Why Do I Always Get It Wrong" 130 2
8  Norway Britt Synnøve Johansen "Venners nærhet" 30 17
9  Portugal Da Vinci "Conquistador" 39 16
10  Sweden Tommy Nilsson "En dag" 110 4
11  Luxembourg Park Café "Monsieur" 8 20
12  Denmark Birthe Kjær "Vi maler byen rød" 111 3
13  Austria Thomas Forstner "Nur ein Lied" 97 5
14  Finland Anneli Saaristo "La dolce vita" 76 7
15  France Nathalie Pâque "J'ai volé la vie" 60 8
16  Spain Nina "Nacida para amar" 88 6
17  Cyprus Fanny Polymeri and Yiannis Savvidakis "Apopse as vrethoume" 51 11
18   Switzerland Furbaz "Viver senza tei" 47 13
19  Greece Marianna "To diko sou asteri" 56 9
20  Iceland Daníel "Það sem enginn sér" 0 22
21  Germany Nino de Angelo "Flieger" 46 14
22  Yugoslavia Riva "Rock Me" 137 1

Spokespersons[edit]

Each country nominated a spokesperson, connected to the contest venue via telephone lines and responsible for announcing, in English or French, the votes for their respective country.[28][48] Known spokespersons at the 1989 contest are listed below.

Detailed voting results[edit]

Jury voting was used to determine the points awarded by all countries.[33] The announcement of the results from each country was conducted in the order in which they performed, with the spokespersons announcing their country's points in English or French in ascending order.[20][33] The detailed breakdown of the points awarded by each country is listed in the tables below.

Detailed voting results of the Eurovision Song Contest 1989[53][54]
Total score
Italy
Israel
Ireland
Netherlands
Turkey
Belgium
United Kingdom
Norway
Portugal
Sweden
Luxembourg
Denmark
Austria
Finland
France
Spain
Cyprus
Switzerland
Greece
Iceland
Germany
Yugoslavia
Contestants
Italy 56 7 10 12 6 2 4 7 8
Israel 50 1 7 3 2 5 5 5 7 5 3 7
Ireland 21 7 3 3 2 4 2
Netherlands 45 10 3 3 1 4 4 7 6 1 6
Turkey 5 1 4
Belgium 13 5 5 2 1
United Kingdom 130 6 7 4 7 1 12 12 10 12 1 8 6 12 10 2 2 12 6
Norway 30 2 2 5 8 2 6 4 1
Portugal 39 4 2 1 3 7 6 2 8 6
Sweden 110 6 6 4 8 8 6 12 12 2 5 8 3 8 2 8 12
Luxembourg 8 5 3
Denmark 111 5 1 10 12 6 4 10 10 2 12 3 7 12 6 10 1
Austria 97 12 8 3 12 7 4 1 2 10 8 12 8 5 5
Finland 76 10 8 6 10 1 4 4 3 10 7 3 10
France 60 3 5 6 4 5 1 8 3 5 3 7 5 2 3
Spain 88 8 2 7 7 4 10 8 8 4 10 10 10
Cyprus 51 2 3 1 6 6 8 2 4 7 12
Switzerland 47 4 4 10 8 8 3 2 1 7
Greece 56 1 1 5 6 10 1 4 12 12 4
Iceland 0
Germany 46 7 2 5 1 5 6 7 1 6 3 3
Yugoslavia 137 12 12 8 12 10 12 7 4 8 5 10 10 7 3 5 5 6 1

12 points[edit]

The below table summarises how the maximum 12 points were awarded from one country to another. The winning country is shown in bold. The United Kingdom received the maximum score of 12 points from five of the voting countries, with Yugoslavia receiving four sets of 12 points, Austria, Denmark and Sweden each receiving three sets of maximum scores, Greece receiving two sets of 12 points, and Cyprus and Italy receiving one maximum score each.[53][54]

Distribution of 12 points awarded at the Eurovision Song Contest 1989[53][54]
N. Contestant Nation(s) giving 12 points
5  United Kingdom  France,  Germany,  Luxembourg,  Norway,  Portugal
4  Yugoslavia  Ireland,  Israel,  Turkey,  United Kingdom
3  Austria  Belgium,  Greece,  Italy
 Denmark  Finland,  Netherlands,  Sweden
 Sweden  Austria,  Denmark,  Yugoslavia
2  Greece  Cyprus,   Switzerland
1  Cyprus  Iceland
 Italy  Spain

Broadcasts[edit]

Each participating broadcaster was required to relay the contest via its networks. Non-participating member broadcasters were also able to relay the contest as "passive participants". Broadcasters were able to send commentators to provide coverage of the contest in their own native language and to relay information about the artists and songs to their television viewers.[30] Known details on the broadcasts in each country, including the specific broadcasting stations and commentators are shown in the tables below.

Broadcasters and commentators in participating countries
Country Broadcaster Channel(s) Commentator(s) Ref(s)
 Austria ORF FS1 Ernst Grissemann [55][56]
 Belgium BRT TV1 Luc Appermont [57]
BRT 2 Ann Lepère
RTBF RTBF1 Jacques Mercier [57][58]
 Cyprus CyBC RIK Neophytos Taliotis [59]
 Denmark DR DR TV Jørgen de Mylius [60]
DR P3 Kurt Helge Andersen
 Finland YLE TV1, 2-verkko [fi] Heikki Harma [61][62]
 France Antenne 2 Lionel Cassan [fr] [63]
 Germany ARD Erstes Deutsches Fernsehen Thomas Gottschalk [55][57]
 Greece ERT ET1 Dafni Bokota [64][65]
 Iceland RÚV Sjónvarpið, Rás 1 Arthúr Björgvin Bollason [66][49]
 Ireland RTÉ RTÉ 1 Ronan Collins and Michelle Rocca [67]
RTÉ Radio 1 Larry Gogan [68]
 Israel IBA Israeli Television [69]
Reshet Gimel [he]
 Italy RAI Rai Uno[c] Gabriella Carlucci [70]
 Luxembourg CLT
 Netherlands NOS Nederland 3 Willem van Beusekom [57]
 Norway NRK NRK Fjernsynet, NRK P2 John Andreassen [71][72]
 Portugal RTP RTP Canal 1 [73]
 Spain TVE TVE 2 Tomás Fernando Flores [es] [74]
 Sweden SVT Kanal 1 Jacob Dahlin [52][71]
RR [sv] SR P3 Kent Finell and Janeric Sundquist [52]
  Switzerland SRG SSR TV DRS Bernard Thurnheer [de] [55]
TSR Thierry Masselot [63]
TSI[d] Giovanni Bertini [63][75]
 Turkey TRT TV1 [76]
 United Kingdom BBC BBC1 Terry Wogan [13][77]
BBC Radio 2 Ken Bruce [13][78]
 Yugoslavia JRT TV Ljubljana 1 [sl] [79]
TV Zagreb 1 Oliver Mlakar [80][81]
Broadcasters and commentators in non-participating countries
Country Broadcaster Channel(s) Commentator(s) Ref(s)
 Australia SBS SBS TV[e] [82]
 Estonian SSR ETV [61][83]
 Poland TP TP1[f] [84]
 Soviet Union CT USSR Programme One [83][85]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Entry partly conducted by Benoît Kaufman, as partway through the performance Krogsgaard joined Kjær on stage as a backing singer.[13]
  2. ^ On behalf of the German public broadcasting consortium ARD[16]
  3. ^ Deferred broadcast at 23:10 CEST (21:10 UTC)[70]
  4. ^ Broadcast through a second audio programme on TSR[55]
  5. ^ Deferred broadcast on 7 May at 20:30 AEST (10:30 UTC)[82]
  6. ^ Delayed broadcast on 20 May 1989 at 20:05 CEST (18:05 UTC)[84]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ a b "Finale 1989 du concours Eurovision de la chanson à Lausanne: Une opération délicate" [1989 Eurovision Song Contest final in Lausanne: A delicate operation]. Nouvelliste et Feuille d'Avis du Valais (in French). Sion, Switzerland. 24 November 1988. Retrieved 9 December 2023 – via e-newspaperarchives.ch.
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  6. ^ "SRG wählte Lausanne" [SRG chose Lausanne]. Bieler Tagblatt (in German). Biel, Switzerland. 2 July 1988. p. 5. Retrieved 11 December 2023 – via e-newspaperarchives.ch.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Lausanne 1989 – Eurovision Song Contest". European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original on 15 October 2022. Retrieved 21 October 2023.
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  15. ^ "1989 – 34th edition". diggiloo.net. Archived from the original on 22 March 2022. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  16. ^ "Alle deutschen ESC-Acts und ihre Titel" [All German ESC acts and their songs]. www.eurovision.de (in German). ARD. Archived from the original on 12 June 2023. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
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  18. ^ "Eurovision: cuvée 89" [Eurovision: vintage 89]. Radio TV8 (in French). Cheseaux-sur-Lausanne, Switzerland: Ringier. 24 November 1988. p. 23. Retrieved 11 December 2023 – via Scriptorium Digital Library.
  19. ^ Roxburgh, Gordon (2016). Songs for Europe: The United Kingdom at the Eurovision Song Contest. Vol. Three: The 1980s. Prestatyn, United Kingdom: Telos Publishing. p. 384. ISBN 978-1-84583-163-9.
  20. ^ a b Concours Eurovision de la Chanson: Lausanne 1989 [Eurovision Song Contest: Lausanne 1989] (Television programme) (in English, French, and German). Lausanne, Switzerland: Société suisse de radiodiffusion et télévision. 6 May 1989.
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